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Kudos to EUSWX for the snow pics.


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In my humble opinion, Eastern US Weather Forums is in all likelihood the best Internet meteorological resource ever developed in the entire history of the Web.


WeenieTown (WT) http://www.weenietown.com/ [Oct 28 2006]

DaBenchMark (DBM) http://www.dabenchmark.com/


Lake Effect Snows are already occurring in what appears to be a severe cold snow laden winter unfolding, and it is not even winter yet!!! The start of winter is still at least 9 weeks away!!!


Buffalo area on the cusp of a historic LES event, Temps will be critical through the lower levels tonight, by powderfreak



See also these links offered by various EUSWX posters and Mets:


Buffalo Web Cam



Rob's Weather Blog















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Developing LES event in Buffalo:



This is already an EUSWX Mega Thread.

Buffalo area on the cusp of a historic LES event, Temps will be critical through the lower levels tonight, by LakeEffectKing



Associated news stories......


2 Feet of Snow Falls on Western N.Y.


BUFFALO, N.Y. -- A rare early October snowstorm left parts of western New York blanketed with 2 feet of snow Friday morning, prompting widespread blackouts, closing schools and halting traffic.


The snow downed scores of tree limbs and toppled power lines, leaving more than 155,000 customers without electricity.


By early Friday, 14 inches of snow had been recorded at the Buffalo Niagara International Airport, with reports of 2 feet elsewhere, said Tom Paone, a meteorologist with the National Weather Service. The snowfall was expected to continue throughout the morning, he said.


On Thursday, 8.3 inches of heavy snow set the record for the "snowiest" October day in Buffalo in the 137-year history of the weather service, said meteorologist Tom Niziol. The previous record of 6 inches was set Oct. 31, 1917.


"This is an extremely rare event for this early in the season," Niziol said.


The Buffalo Police Department received more than 3,000 calls late Thursday and about two-thirds were related to the weather, Lt. James Watkins said.


"There are power lines going down all over the place," he said.


Crews worked into the night to restore power, but many customers were expected to remain in the dark through the weekend and into next week, National Grid energy company spokesman Steve Brady said.


"This is extremely heavy snow and most of the trees still have most of their leaves, he said. "We can't do a complete damage assessment until the snow stops falling."


Dozens of schools were closed and states of emergency were declared in the City of Tonawanda, and towns of Cheektowaga, Elma, Lancaster, Akron, and Depew.


Unnecessary driving was banned in Buffalo and suburbs Amherst, Blasdell, Orchard Park and Hamburg.


"We have a condition where 80 percent of the roads are impassable," said Lt. Stephen McGonagle of the Amherst Police Department.


Officials said the snowstorm caused flight delays and cancellations at Buffalo's airport, which was shut down for almost two hours late Thursday.


Meanwhile, tree branches were strewn across the roads around the region. A large box maple tree split in half, falling on Joan Casey's home in Buffalo.


"The whole house shook," Casey said. "We were very afraid. Originally I thought it was just the thunder, and then I came outside and I couldn't believe it."










Area slammed hard by snow


Thousands In Region Without Power 'Enormous amount of physical damage'


Less than three weeks removed from summer's waning days, a thundering lake-effect snowstorm blitzed Buffalo Niagara on Thursday, knocking out power to more than 100,000 homes, felling large trees and creating havoc for travelers.


The early-autumn blast of winter, fueled by Lake Erie's 60-degree water, scored a direct hit on the Buffalo metro area and its northern and eastern suburbs. Trees still carrying their autumn leaves became too heavy with snow and their branches crashed to the ground, damaging homes, cars and power lines.


"The snow is so wet that it is doing tremendous damage to tree limbs and power lines," said Bob Hamilton, National Weather Service meteorologist.


Steve Brady, spokesman for National Grid, said the power company already expects some customers to be dark through the weekend. Crews will be called in from as far away as New England to help restore service.


"This is the worst possible time of year for us to get a snowstorm," Brady said. "There's an enormous amount of physical damage."


Snowfall totals were expected to range from 2 to 4 inches across northern Erie, Niagara, Orleans and Genesee counties. Localized areas were projected to receive as much as six inches.


Authorities issued advisories against unnecessary travel in Buffalo and the northern suburbs. Dozens of school districts - including Buffalo, Amherst, Clarence, Williamsville, Kenmore-Town of Tonawanda, City of Tonawanda, Sweet Home, West Seneca and Williamsville - announced they would be closed today.


City officials were working on setting up emergency shelters for those without power.


It isn't the earliest measurable snowfall in the city's weather history.


On Oct. 6, 1991, two-tenths of an inch of snow was recorded. And on Oct. 13, 1909, Buffalo registered six inches of snow.


Even though Thursday's totals were measured only in inches and not feet like past memorable lake-effect snowstorms, this storm packed an even more damaging punch, smothering trees and power lines with a think blanket of heavy, water-laden snow.


"We've never had anything this potent this early," Hamilton said.


Late Thursday night, wide power outages remained across the Buffalo metro area as well as northern and eastern suburbs. Emergency crews frantically responded into the teeth of the storm, handling dozens of vehicle accidents, downed power lines, streets blocked by fallen trees and darkened traffic lights.


The 911 emergency call center in Buffalo was inundated with calls. At about 10:30 p.m., all nine staffed employees were handling calls, according to its display board at Buffalo police headquarters. There were a dozen more calls waiting to be answered.


Injuries associated with the storm were still undetermined. Snyder firefighters were on the scene of a boy reportedly struck by a falling tree on South Union Road at about 10:30 p.m., Amherst Fire Control officials reported. No other details were available.


National Grid reported more than 100,000 customers were without power in Erie, Niagara and Genesee counties; New York State Electric & Gas also had 14,700 customers without power.


Among the customers without power was Buffalo Niagara International Airport, which lost power at 4:45 p.m. and remained operating on generators before closing at mid-evening, according to NFTA spokesman C. Douglas Hartmayer.


"Due to very poor visibility and some icing on the runway . . . we have had to close the runways . . . until we can get them into a better condition," Hartmayer said. One plane remained stuck on a runway late Thursday night.


Also, the jet bridges connecting airplanes to the terminal were not functional during the outage. That forced travelers to get onto or off of planes outside of the terminal, Hartmayer said.


Back in Buffalo, the storm mangled trees and ripped live wires from homes and power poles.


As many as 10 trees on Poultney Avenue buckled under the weight of the heavy snow, rendering the street impassable, police reported. Fallen trees also blocked traffic on Parkdale Avenue, Oakland Place, Delaware Avenue, Fenton Street, Cleveburn Place, Englewood Avenue and Amherst Street.


An electrical pole on Seneca Street snapped in two, leaving a transformer on the ground at about 6:15 p.m. Street lights flickered downtown and went off entirely in other parts of Elmwood Village and North Buffalo along with traffic lights. Buffalo police placed temporary stop signs at several intersections.


North Buffalo was especially hard-hit. Front lawns and curb strips along Parkside Avenue were littered with toppled limbs; a red, compact car parked in the street appeared trapped in the grip of the snow-shrouded branches of a nearby tree.


Similar conditions were reported in the northern and eastern suburbs, compounded by extensive power outages.


Kenmore police estimated that between half and three-quarters of the village was without power because of widespread outages. There were numerous trees and wires down, with two tree crews out trying to clear the roads.


Ditto to the north.


The Town of Tonawanda, which announced a travel ban late Thursday night, was hit with widespread power outages, a police officer said.


"The whole city's pretty much without power," was the word from City of Tonawanda Police Headquarters. Further, there have been several fires caused by downed wires.


Amherst police closed a stretch of Harlem Road, from Main Street to Sheridan Drive, because of downed trees. Numerous traffic signals also were out.


Downed trees and utility wires also were reported in Cheektowaga, North Tonawanda and Lancaster.


West Seneca police reported that several vehicles slid off Route 400 between 5 and 8 p.m.


Numerous traffic collisions were reported on the mainline and Niagara section of the New York State Thruway. Four separate crashes were reported on the Niagara section of the Thruway at about 9:30 p.m.


The western part of Genesee County was dealing with heavy snow toppling trees and utility wires. Power outages were affecting Pembroke, Alabama and Oakfield, according to a sheriff's department dispatcher.


To the south, wind and hail were responsible for downed utility lines in the Town of Evans, police reported.


The lake snow is forecast to move north out of the area and switch to rain around the time of the morning commute today.











Additional weather threads.......



Snow Making Pics, by marsh



DCA/IAD first freeze, by Nikolai



already reached our predicted low here, Anyone else colder than thought?, JamieO









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This EUSWX thread, Buffalo area on the cusp of a historic LES event, Temps will be critical through the lower levels tonight, by LakeEffectKing, is indeed an impressive informational resource on this freakish early-season LES event.


It really needs another mention:


Buffalo area on the cusp of a historic LES event, Temps will be critical through the lower levels tonight







Ginx Snewx posted some interesting info:





It was just an example , here is my work guidline and technique.


Proper Snow Removal

General Information

This information applies to both steep and flat roofs.

When evaluating the need for snow removal, the determination should be made based on the following considerations:

The design load of the roof structure, i.e., the amount of weight per-square-foot the roof structure is designed to carry which includes dead loads such as rooftop equipment and live loads such as snow.

The weight of the snow/ice on the roof.

The weight of the snow/ice on the roof is a measure of the weight of the water content of the snow/ice, not the depth or thickness of the snow/ice. Collecting samples of the snow/ice and measuring the water content is the only practical and accurate means of determining the weight of the snow/ice on the roof.

The weight of the water content of the snow/ice can be measured as outlined below:

Water weighs 5.2 pounds per-square-foot for each inch of depth.

Using a can or similar container such as a coffee can with a bottom, (The diameter of the can will not affect the outcome):

Insert the can vertically down into the snow until the can is full.

Empty the snow into a large bucket each time the can is full.

Repeat this process until you reach the roof.

Melt the snow in the bucket and pour the water back into the can.

Measure the depth of the water in the can in inches and multiply by 5.2 to determine the weight per-square-foot.

If there is ice at the bottom of the snow blanket, estimate the thickness in inches and multiply by 5.2 and add this result to the snow weight.

Using a metal or plastic pipe (The diameter of the pipe can vary and it will not affect the outcome):

A can with a bottom having the same inside diameter as the pipe is needed.

Insert the pipe vertically down into the snow until it touches the roof.

Empty the snow into a large bucket.

Melt the snow in the bucket and pour the water into the can with the same inside diameter as the pipe.

Measure the depth of the water in the can in inches and multiply by 5.2 to determine the weight per-square-foot.

If there is ice at the bottom of the snow blanket, estimate the thickness in inches and multiply by 5.2 and add this result to the snow weight.


Roof structure is designed to carry a live load of 20 pounds per-square-foot of snow/ice.

There is thirty-six inches of snow on the roof that melts down to 2.5 inches of water: 2.5x5.2=13

There is 1.5 inches of ice on the roof. 1.5x5.2=7.8

Total snow/ice weight is 13+7.8=20.8 pounds per-square-foot.

Recommendation: remove a portion of the snow to reduce the weight below 20 pounds per-square-foot.

Snow loads can vary across a single roof section due to the following:

Snow drifting.

The water content of the snow can vary due to consolidation of the snow and the presence of ice in localized areas where ponding occurs.

Increased ice build-up can occur on flat roofs when the following conditions occur:

Where ponding occurs, usually on roofs that do not drain properly.

Where drains are plugged, usually with debris and/or ice.

When there is excessive heat loss from the building that melts the snow in ponding areas.

Structures that are typically most vulnerable to damage from heavy snow/ice loads include porches, patios, carports and sheds.

Areas of the roof that are typically most vulnerable to damage from heavy snow/ice loads include roof overhangs, valleys, and roof sections below upper roof sections.

Precautions should be taken when removing snow/ice to prevent the following:

Personal injury resulting from sliding or falling off the roof.

Damage to the building structure, exterior building fixtures, landscaping or other property below the roof due to falling snow/ice.

Damage to the roofing, flashing and adjoining building fixtures from walking on the roof or shovel damage or chopping ice.

Snow Ice Removal Recommendations

Snow/ice should be removed from the roof when it has been determined that the roof structure will not hold the snow/ice load. This may require an evaluation of the roof structure by a licensed structural engineer.

Always take appropriate safety measures including the use of proper safety equipment to prevent personal injury.

Provide snowmelt devices such as heat cable at all gutters and drains to prevent ice blockage and ice build-up.

Avoid concentrated snow loads when moving snow across a roof.

Monitor and remove snow/ice as needed in the following locations:

In areas of the roof that are most vulnerable to damage including roof overhangs, valleys, and roof sections below upper roof sections.

Off structures that are typically most vulnerable to damage including porches, patios, carports and sheds.

It is typically not necessary to remove the snow/ice down to the roofing because most structures are designed to hold the weight of some snow/ice. Damage to the roofing and flashing can be avoided by only removing the snow down to within six (6+-) inches of the roofing and only removing the ice down to within one (1+-) inch of the roofing.

Snow can be removed from steep sloped roofs from the ground using a variety of commercial and homemade devices. However, precautions should be taken because most of these devices are required to be pushed up the roof slope, which increases the possibility of damage to the roofing.

Ice can be removed using several methods, including the following:

Hot air from sources such as paint removers and single ply roofing membrane seam welding tools.

Ice picks and other suitable hand tools used properly to avoid damaging the roofing, flashing and adjoining building fixtures.

Fertilizers and other snowmelt chemicals that will not cause damage to the roofing, flashing, gutters, drain pipes, building fixtures, landscaping or property below the roof.

If a company is hired to remove snow/ice, the company should be required to comply with the following requirements:

Provide evidence of Workers Compensation and general liability insurance.

Take appropriate safety measures including the use of proper safety equipment.

Comply with other relevant recommendations in this guideline



A truly historic event in and near Buffalo.



WinterWx has an informative website as well concerning this event:














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October 20-27: Looks Cold in the East, by donsutherland1



So many snow records today, October 12, 2006, Heres a list, by Michsnowfreak




Buffalo Raw Hourly Obs from the October 12-13, 2006 snowblitz, provided by famartin:






DC and Mid-Atlantic Folks, Re:Buffalo record breaker, by WEATHER53





I don't know what we'd ever do without ShadowAngel and his website!!!!! :)

Buffalo Mega Snow Pictures..., 90+ Photos of the event...Historic Buffalo LES, by ShadowAngel



ShadowAngel's ABSOLUTELY FANTASTIC website






The Buffalo Cam



BuffaloCam Time Lapse Oct 12 2006 Blizzard Pics











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Record Snow Causes Variety of Problems in Buffalo


Buffalo and snow go hand-in-hand, but not this early in October. An unprecedented lake effect snow storm brought one to two feet of snow across the metro area late Thursday and early Friday. And as sunshine and warmer temperatures return this afternoon, and into the upcoming weekend, new problems face those digging out and cleaning up.



Flood Watches are now in effect for Erie, Genesee, Niagara, and Orleans Counties through 6:00 PM EDT Saturday evening. Temperatures rising into the 40s will cause rapid melting of the deep, moisture-laden snowpack. This melting, combined with the possibility of a stray shower on Saturday, will set the stage for flooding, especially in urban, low-lying, and poor drainage areas.



Up to 260,000 customers remain without power across the Buffalo metro area. Police and power crews continue to assess damage to trees and power lines which collapsed under the tremendous weight of the wet, heavy snow. National Grid Company says that most people will not have service restored until the weekend, and possibly well into next week.



In addition to the power outages, water rationing is being strongly urged. A water pumping station in Erie County was knocked out by the storm, prompting officials to ask residents of Amherst and Cheektowaga to conserve water. Any water that is used should be boiled for at least two minutes, according to the Erie County Water Authority.



These series of events have prompted Governor George Pataki to declare a State Disaster Emergency for the affected counties of Erie, Genesee, Niagara, and Orleans and contiguous areas.



An unusually cold, arctic airmass flowing over the 62 degree water of Lake Erie caused an intense snowband to develop late Thursday afternoon, which continued well into the overnight and early morning hours on Friday. One to two feet of very wet, heavy snow accumulated from downtown Buffalo north to Niagara Falls before the snowband weakened late Friday morning.



Thunder and lightning occurred as the rain changed to snow around 2 p.m. Thursday afternoon. Thundersnow continued to be reported at times even as daylight occurred early Friday morning. Airport observations reported visibility of less than one-quarter of a mile occurred from 4 p.m. Thursday to 4 a.m. Friday as the snow fell up to 4 inches an hour at times.



The National Weather Service office in Buffalo was forced to issue Lake Effect Snow Warnings, the earliest on record. The official 8.3 inches that fell on Thursday broke the all time daily snowfall record for October previously set on October 31, 1917 when 6 inches fell.



But Thursday`s record was quickly shattered by the 14.3 inches that fell from Midnight to 11 a.m. Friday morning. By that time, the official 24-hour total for this historic event totaled 22.6 inches. Here are updated snowfall totals from other Snow Spotters in the region:




Depew: 24.0 inches

Amherst: 20.0 inches

Alden: 19.0 inches

Clarence: 18.0 inches

Darien Center: 16.0 inches

Tonawanda: 12.0 inches

South Buffalo: 9.0 inches

Lockport: 5.0 - 8.0 inches

Albion: 6.0 inches



According to New York State Thruway officials, a 30-mile stretch of I-90 Westbound has been reopened from Hamburg in Erie County to Fredonia-Dunkirk in Chautauqua County. Other stretches of I-90 remained closed, however, as a thick snowpack continues to sit atop the road.



Travel bans in Buffalo, Grand Island, Cheektowaga, Hamburg and Clarence have been lifted. However, they are still enforced in Amherst and Lancaster. States of Emergency have been declared, and schools closed throughout the region as well. All Buffalo public schools will be closed on Monday.



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More excellent autumnal/wintry threads and snow cams from EUSWX....


Accumulating Snows, 1st Significant Accumulating Snowfall 6" +, by Rtd208



Snowing in parts of PA, NY, by Ytterbium



CHRISTY'S MOTEL, Old Forge, NY Oct 20 2006 420pm (Click on graphic below)



This "Webb Cam" is located at McCauley Mountain Ski Center.









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Seven Springs Mountain Cam



Deep Creek Lake - Wisp Ski Resort WebCam




New England Skiing., @ Sunday River, by ETauntonMA



WOO-HOO!! YOU-TUBE SNOW VIDEO!! First Skiing & Riding of the Winter





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Many posters on Eastern US Weather Forums are already in full mid-winter weenie mode.



Check out some of the latest threads:


All this chazzerei about the strenghthening el nino., by weathafella




Northern New England is in Full Winter Mode, Various Pics and Upslope Time...Get the Skis Ready, by who else? powderfreak!!!



Powderfreak's pics are stunningly breathtaking and break my heart.



New England Skiing., @ Sunday River, by ETauntonMA






Nice meteorological website:

SSFC Beta 2 (The Severe Storms Forecast Center)





New met on board, hello everyone!, by kulaginman





Something for Mount Holly's Golfers to Consider between Writing AFDs, by donsutherland1





NorEaster27 out of Ithaca, NY, contributed this icy jewel:


The World Ice Golf Championship in Greenland










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I don't know what we'd ever do without the powderfreak. He's got the best snow pictures on the entire Web. Check 'em out!!



Images from a dream: Mt. Mansfield, VT, Oct 30th., You will not believe it., by powderfreak



Also, here is Raleighwx's Winter 2006-07 Forecast/Discussion.








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Vicarious squirrel report...big bad and dangerous., by weathafella




Mean Squirrel Attacks Pa. Letter Carrier


OIL CITY, PA (AP) -- Letter carriers occasionally have to deal with angry dogs or maybe even a spider's nest in a mailbox, but a mean squirrel? Barb Dougherty, a 30-year Postal Service employee, said she was attacked and bitten Monday by a squirrel while delivering mail in Oil City, about 75 miles north of Pittsburgh.


"It was a freak thing. It was traumatic," Dougherty told The Derrick in Oil City. "I saw it there on the porch, put the mail in the box and turned to walk away and it jumped on me."


The animal ran up her leg and onto her back, she said.


"I eventually got a hold of the tail and pulled it off me," Dougherty said. "No one was home at the house where I was delivering the mail, but the neighbor lady heard me screaming and came over."


An ambulance took Dougherty to the hospital, where she was treated for cuts and scratches. The squirrel was killed with a BB gun and sent to a lab to be tested for rabies. Dougherty was given the first series of rabies shots as a precaution.


Postal officials said the attack is extraordinary.


"In about 230 years of postal history, I bet it is not the first, but I've personally never heard of another squirrel biting," said Steve Kochersperger, spokesman for the Erie district.


Squirrels do not frequently bite people, said Regis Senko, who works for the Pennsylvania Game Commission.


Steve Jolley, a Postal Service manager in Oil City, said, "We are not issuing a squirrel alert, but everyone is aware of the incident."










First steady central New England snow this morning, by dendrite




Lake Sunapee, NH WebCam



South Central New York WebCam







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For all you backyard blowers, by Mad River




Killington Photo Gallery




Cataloochee Ski Area Live Web Cam!! (North Carolina)






Jebman's Forecast for NOV/DEC 2006, by Jebman







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EUSWX has got an Eastern US Weather Photo Pool on Flickr




Snow pics from west of Winston Salem, NC, by Blowin' Snow in NC





Melting of Greenland's ice sheet is the turning point, by Ytterbium



Pascal's and Bernoulli's principle weakens hurricanes



That is one interesting forum.


4477 members as of 444pm Nov 4 2006.




Really enjoyable reminiscent thread!!!

JAN 25th 2000 Horror Stories from NYC to Boston, We were the victims of one NASTY DRYSLOT, by dbz80






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Early Season Snowfall Continues in Northern VT, Mt. Mansfield on Saturday evening, by powderfreak




Jack Ludlow at EUSWX had this link in his sig:





Also he mentioned this paper:


The Snowball Earth






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